Answer: When ionic silver (missing one electron) are again reduced to neutral silver atoms they require to form co-valent bonded atomic clusters in order to remain stable and not revert back to an ionic state. This is done by neutral silver atoms donating their outer unpaired electrons for the common good and stability. The first of such bonding is the Dimer consisting of one pair of atoms. A single atom is called a monomer.
Answer: Just a Buzz word. Except for the author, no one has ever bothered to specify or describe either technically or scientifically what exactly constitutes colloidal silver. This is due to everyone involved in its production doing things differently, inconsistently and secretly, making no effort to embrace a common standard.
Dispersions: What is the difference between a dispersion and a suspension?
Answer: A dispersion is a mechanism where any matter at all is spreading to a point of reaching an equilibrium in all directions, i.e. heating up a room to the point of the same temperature throughout. Pico and nano metre sized atomic silver clusters subject to a hydrophilic relationship with the water in which they are suspended, carry a minus and mutually repelling electrical interfacial charge known as the Zeta potential.
Electrical aqueous suspensions: What does this concept mean?
Answer: Materials and other substances are either ‘water loving’ (hydrophilic) or ‘water hating’ (hydrophobic). Metals are generally hydrophobic and silver is that way when in a neutral state. As a cation (positive charge) due to missing an electron, the incomplete silver atom is totally dissolved in the water and cannot be observed. Neutral silver however develops interfacial electrical charges such as the Zeta potential, Nernst potential, the Stern potential as well as surface charges between itself and the surrounding water. The Stern potential is created by positively charged hydrogen surrounding the negative atomic cluster with a more diffuse mixture of positive and negative charges further out. The concept is known as the Double Layer and explained by the DLVO theory, constructed by the scientists, Derjaquin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek.
Answer: A method of quantum nano metre sized silver production that uses a monochromatic light at 420nm instead of electrolysis or electrochemistry with ambient incidental broadband spectral light and temperatures. Electro-photochemistry is a purely combined physics and quantum physics phenomenon also known as electron photo transfer technique at refrigerated low temperatures and controlled and limited current.
Free Radicals action: What sort of action is that?
Answer: Free radicals are electrons that have left an unstable atom and for that reason in search for stability offered by another atom. Chlorine is such an atom, but is kept relatively stable by bonding to Sodium (Natrium) and forming Sodium Chloride (NaCl) or common salt. These free electrons also attach themselves to a complete atom and driving the original electron away and a type of domino effect occurs destroying cells. Silver by scientific definition can be seen as a source of free radicals.
Hydrated electrons: What are hydrated or solvated electrons?
Answer: These hydrated or solvated electrons are free electrons but for the fact that in the water they are held captive by the water molecules. Electrons are of a negative polarity and for that reason water molecules being di-polar orientate their positive hydrogen atoms toward these electrons to neutralise the overall charge. Hydrated electrons are produced during the oxidation process when the bulk silver anode is subjected to a high voltage and low current potential. In that process where silver atoms are removed, an electron is lost making the silver atom a cation with a positive charge.
Local Plasmon Resonance: What is local plasmon resonance capable of?
Answer: When energetic photons impact on matter such as metals, their absorption causes vibrations and heat (thermal agitation). In particular the electrons are jostled. At the high radio frequencies such as microwaves such heat creation is called rotational energy and at visible light, thermal agitation. At shorter wavelengths (and higher frequencies) starting at violet light (2.95eV) incoming photons produce ionizing radiation. However when metals such as silver at very small dimensions photons of low frequencies (long wavelength) collisions between such photons with a single electron in the ‘skin depth’ of a material just below the surface, a local oscillations of the electron is caused. To some extent depending on the incoming wavelength this oscillation is referred to as a Local Plasmon Resonance. After this oscillation has expired, the departing photon may either have lost some energy (red shift in most of the time) but out of some collisions gained some energy (blue shift).
Answer: The manipulation of matter by way of a voltage potential causing ionization and the loss of one or more electrons and thus creating an incomplete atom. This is referred to as a cation when positive and an anion when negative. Ionic silver is produced this way.
Parallel resistance: What type of resistance is parallel resistance?
Answer: Parallel resistance and its associate phenomenon, ‘Current Hugging’ is expressed within the established measurements of Ohm’s Law. Ohm’s Law states that under the influence of a DC voltage potential of 1 volt and a resistance of 1 Ohm, a current of 1 Ampere will flow. Because of this intimate relationship of volts in E, current in I and resistance in R, changing one of the three elements automatically changes that values of the others. For example, if the resistance value is doubled, the current flowing will be reduced to half. However if the resistance value is halved, the current is doubled. Parallel resistance circuits are capable of measuring the resistance of water by a current reading to an accuracy of 1%. Current hugging occurs if one resistor out of a parallel pair is of a lower resistance than the other and this causes more current to flow than the other.
Answer: Perhaps the most used Buzzword of all. Would not be so wrong if identified as what type of particle it is, i.e. silver particle, copper particle or gold particle or even Nuclear Particle, but not ‘just particles’. The word particle should only be used if it is indeed a very small solid, such as very finely pulverised bulk metals or other granular solids submersed in water if describing colloids or other substances at nano metre sizes. In the case of quantum level reconstituted silver, there are no particle, just atomic silver clusters ‘co-valance’ bonded and in no way being described as anything else.
Purity of Silver: What should be the purity of silver?
Answer: The short answer would be “As pure as possible”. However this may not be economically viable. Practice has shown a purity of 99.998% is an acceptable alternative for keeping the contamination of heavy metals such as Lead and Arsenic down to 10ppb.
Answer: Normally electrons in bulk metals are able to move from end to end under the influence of a voltage potential. Electrons within atomic clusters are bound to be limited in their movement by the confines of small spaces and this causes a kinetic energy much like a compressed spring. When during a collision with a photon of the right wavelength that additional energy is dissipated and added to the receeding photon to gain some energy instead of loosing it.
Answer: When a water molecule enters into a modified form by increasing the distance between oxygen atom and the Hydrogen atoms sufficiently in order to creep in to places normally considered to small. Capillary action may be one form of quantum confined water. It has also been established that water molecules in isolation between two capacitive plates at small dimensions appear to be no longer electrically charged such as the bulk water is.
Answer: Quantum Physics also previously known as Quantum Mechanics relates to the inner workings and parts of atoms: electrons, protons and neutrons. Molecular entities and larger are governed by Classical Physics.
Quantum reconstituted water suspended atomic silver clusters: A long description that requires an ‘in-depth’ explanation.
Answer: Quantum reconstituted suspended silver is produced by a relatively new production process that is based on Physics instead of Chemistry. It is called the electro-photochemical process, i.e. the simultaneous ionization and reduction of silver by photonic interaction at 420nm. It is a very clean and efficient process that produces a narrow band of atomic silver clusters not even 10nm wide. The 330 vdc @ 500 micro ampere placed across two silver electrodes submersed partially in water, strips silver atoms away from the anode that lose an electron, become momentary ionic and subsequently are reduced to neutral silver which remain in a co-valent bonded clusters in a relatively permanent stability.